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ISBN
0-9916386-0-3
ISBN 13
978-0-9916386-0-4
Library of Congress: 2014904248
780 pages:
Perfect Bind - 7.5x9.25
PD 0911
Shelving: Databases/Oracle Oracle In-Focus Series #37

 

Advanced Oracle SQL Tuning
The Definitive Reference


By
Donald K. Burleson           Retail Price $59.95  


Only $49.95 Buy it now
       
Key Features   About the Authors Reader Comments
Table of Contents   Errata  
       

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It's impossible to tune an Oracle database without understanding SQL tuning.  Oracle is a SQL processing engine and the execution speed of any SQL query is influenced by many factors, both internal and external.

As a declarative data access method, SQL relies on the Oracle cost-based optimizer to always choose the "best" execution plan for every SQL query.  However, Oracle's SQL is among the most flexible and robust in the world, and along with this great power comes complexity.

Tuning Oracle SQL is the single most important skill of any Oracle professional, and Oracle professionals are challenged to create SQL statements that will support thousands of concurrent executions with sub-second response time.

"Advanced Oracle SQL Tuning" is a pragmatic treatment of Oracle SQL tuning, short on theory and big on real-world techniques and tips.   This book is the culmination of the author's 25 years of full-time DBA experience and he shares expert tips and secrets for hyper charging SQL execution speed.

This book covers advanced topics and it is not appropriate for beginners, dilettantes or neophytes.

 
Key Features

* Hypercharge your SQL performance

* Learn expert secrets for global SQL optimization

* See how to tune SQL with hints.

* Understand how to tune SQL with statistics and histograms.

* Tuning with tuning tips.

* See inside the Oracle Cost-Based Optimizer.

* Receive ready-to-run scripts to tune your Oracle SQL.

* Tune your library cache for super-fast SQL parsing.

 

 

About the Author:


Donald Burleson

Donald K. Burleson is one of the world’s top Oracle Database experts with more than 25 years of full-time DBA experience.  He specializes in creating database architectures for very large online databases and he has worked with some of the world’s most powerful and complex systems.  

A former Adjunct Professor, Don Burleson has written more than 30 books, published more than 100 articles in National Magazines, and serves as Editor-in-Chief of Rampant TechPress. Don is a popular lecturer and teacher and is a frequent speaker at Oracle OpenWorld and other international database conferences.

 

Free Oracle Tips

HTML Text

Table of Contents:

 CHAPTER 1:  Introduction to Oracle SQL Tuning           

Introduction to Oracle SQL          

The origin of relational SQL         

The declarative nature of SQL   

When SQL sucks              

Who tunes SQL?              

Understanding SQL Tuning         

The top-down approach to Oracle tuning             

The Goals of SQL Tuning              

Roadblocks to SQL Tuning           

Successful SQL Tuning Methods               

Tuning by Simplifying SQL Syntax             

Causes of poor Oracle performance       

Optimizing Oracle SQL Execution              

Watching the SQL WHERE clause              

Remove unnecessary large-table full table scans              

Setting SQL Optimization Goals 

The Persistent SQL System         

The Dynamic SQL System            

Holistic Oracle Tuning    

Dealing with Time Constraints   

Best Practices for SQL Optimization        

Maintaining SQL Infrastructure 

Encapsulating SQL for Fast Performance               

Pinning SQL into Packages           

How Hardware Affects SQL Tuning Techniques 

The changing landscape of Oracle SQL Tuning    

A Release-centric Approach to SQL Optimization              

g SQL Tuning Enhancements      

Operational SQL enhancements in g       

Automating g SQL Tuning with Plan Baselines     

Tuning When the SQL Cannot Be Touched           

The g Flash Cache and SQL tuning            

External Tables and SQL               

Defining an External Table          

Internals of External Table SQL 

Conclusion         

CHAPTER 2:  The Oracle Cost-based SQL Optimizer    

Inside the SQL optimizer              

Tuning with the rule-based SQL optimizer           

Why the rule hint is still popular in Oracle g         

Costs and the CBO          

The steps for executing a SQL statement             

Creating a SQL executable          

Optimizer behavior and parameters       

The optimizer_mode parameter              

The optimizer and where clause order  

High throughput vs. fast response time

Optimizing SQL for multiple workloads  

The effect of optimizer_mode on SQL execution plans  

Optimizer mode and query performance             

Oracle parameters that influence the CBO          

The g opt_param hint   

Using optimizer_index_cost_adj             

Changing CBO SQL Optimizer Parameters            

Changing Optimizer Parameters at the User Level           

Measuring I/O Costs for Scattered and Sequential Reads             

Understanding CBO Statistics    

Extended Optimizer Statistics    

Oracle Optimizer Costing             

Oracle Dynamic Sampling            

The Dynamic Sampling Hint         

Sub-Optimal Table Join Order    

Managing Schema Statistics with dbms_stats     

Getting top-quality statistics for the CBO             

Statistics Enhancements for Oracle g and Beyond            

Testing New CBO Statistics         

Avoiding Monday Morning Mayhem      

Tuning SQL with Histograms       

Automating Histogram Creation with dbms_stats            

Histogram Improvements in g   

g New Features for dbms_stats               

Oracle Workload Statistics and SQL Performance              

External Costing with the Optimizer       

Fixing CBO Statistics       

Repairing Obsolete CBO Statistics Gathering       

Setting the SQL Optimizer Cost Model   

Turning on CPU Costing

Solid State Oracle and SQL tuning            

  

CHAPTER 3 : Oracle SQL Execution Plans         

Inside SQL Execution Details      

The Obsolete Explain Plan Syntax            

Why the Explain Plan Gives Wrong Details!         

Wrong Plans When Not Using explain plan          

Using the SQL*Plus autotrace Utility      

Using Explain Plan           

Using utlxpls.sql to See SQL Explain Plans             

The Oracle dbms_xplan Utility  

Introduction to SQL Tracing        

Using Trace Analyzer to Trace SQL           

Executing Trace Analyzer             

Using tkprof to Trace SQL            

Viewing RAM Usage for SQL Statements              

Costs and the Cost-based Optimizer      

SQL Tuning and Execution Statistics        

Learning the Sequence of Explain Plan Steps      

Ordering the Sequence of Execution Plan Steps               

Explain Plan Supplemental Information

Inside SQL Table Joining               

The Nested Loops Join 

Interrogating SQL Execution Plans           

Tracing SQL Execution History    

Using SQL Profiles           

Swapping execution plans          

Swapping SQL Profiles  

Changing SQL Execution Plans with Hints              

When to Use an Oracle Hint       

Automatic Query Rewrite with Hints      

When Hints Are Ignored              

Why is My Hint Ignored?             

Syntax Error Hints are Ignored  

Incompatible Hints are Ignored

Hints With Bad Parameters are Ignored

    

CHAPTER 4:  Oracle SQL Join Internals             

Oracle Table Join Types

Equi-Join             

The Outer Join Operator              

The anti-join operator  

The Oracle Semi-Join     

Oracle ISO  Table Syntax              

ISO  outer join Syntax   

Oracle Internal Machinations for SQL     

Oracle Physical Join Types           

The sort merge join       

Oracle nested loops joins            

When the optimizer fails to choose nested loops joins  

The Oracle hash Join      

Displaying Hash RAM usage for execution plan steps      

Hash Partitioning and Hash Joining          

Tuning Oracle Hash Joins             

Parallelizing Hash Joins 

The Oracle g Full Hash Join          

Interrogating SQL Table Join Methods   

Verifying optimal Join techniques            

Evaluating Oracle Physical Join Performance       

Oracle Table Join Optimization  

Optimal Table Join Order and Transitive Closure               

SQL Tuning with the ordered Hint            

SQL Tuning with the ordered_predicates Hint    

How is SQL join cardinality estimated?   

Tuning with the cardinality hint 

Enabling Dynamic Sampling of Statistics

Sampling Table Scans    

SQL Tuning with the dynamic_sampling hint       

The star transformation join      

Requirements Star Transformation Join

Types of Index Access Methods               

Inside the index range scan        

Inside the index fast full scan    

 

CHAPTER 5:  Tuning Oracle Full Table Scans   

Inside the Full-table Scan            

The Types of Full Scan Operations           

Full Scan I/O is Cheaper Than Index I/O

When a Large-table Full-table Scan is Evil             

Full Table Scans and Stripe Size 

SQL Result Set Size and Full Table Scans

Unnecessary Large-table Full-table Scans            

NULL Values and Index Access  

Never Replace a NULL Value for Index Access   

Avoiding Full Scans on SQL with a not equals Clause        

Full Table Scans and the like Clause         

Oracle case insensitive searches              

Using Oracle*Text Indexes with the SQL like Clause        

Index Resynchronization             

Remove Unnecessary Large-table Full-table Scans          

Locating Full-scan Operations    

Tuning Large-table Full-table Scans         

Tuning Small-table Full-table Scans         

KEEP Pool Assignment Rules      

Scripts for Automating KEEP Pool Assignment    

Another KEEP Pool Script Approach        

Sizing the KEEP Pool       

Conclusion         

CHAPTER 6:  Oracle SQL Tuning with Indexes                  

SQL Tuning with Indexes             

The Types of Oracle indexes      

The Oracle b-tree Index               

Creating a b-tree Index

Tuning SQL with Bitmapped Indexes      

Distinct Key Values and Bitmap Indexes!              

Bitmap Compression, Row Clustering, and Column Cardinality   

Exceptions to the Rule! High Cardinality Bitmap Indexes               

Combining Bitmaps:  The Bitmap Merge Operation         

SQL Tuning with Bitmap Join Indexes     

How Bitmap Join Indexes Work

Bitmap Join Index Example         

Exclusions for Bitmap Join Indexes          

When Oracle SQL Chooses the Wrong Index      

Beware of the Fast Fix  

Forcing Index Usage      

Oracle Does Not Use My Index 

Using nls_date_format with Date Indexes          

Managing Complex Date Comparisons in SQL     

Using the months_between Date Function        

Using the add_months Date Function   

Using the last_day Date Function            

Using the next_day Date Function          

Using the round Date Function 

Using the trunc Date Function   

Index Usage and Built-in Functions         

Finding BIFs       

Tuning SQL with FBIs     

Using case Statements with an FBI          

Indexing on Complex Functions               

Statistics and FBIs           

Conclusions on FBIs       

SQL tuning with Regular Expression Indexes       

Indexing on Regular Expressions              

Case Sensitive Searches with Indexes   

SQL Tuning with Oracle*Text Indexes    

Oracle*Text Index Resynchronization   

Tuning SQL with Index Organized Tables              

Testing New Oracle Indexes      

Testing SQL Workloads with Invisible Indexes    

Monitoring Index Usage              

Monitoring for Index Range Scans           

Monitoring SQL Workload Activity           

Verifying Optimal Index Usage 

Finding Indexing Opportunities

Find SQL that Uses Sub-optimal ndexes

Finding SQL with Excessive I/O  

Finding sub-optimal SQL in the library cache       

Finding Index Opportunities in AWR       

Locating Un-used Indexes          

Finding Unused Indexes in Oracle i and Earlier   

Finding Unused Indexes in Oracle i         

Finding Unused indexes in Oracle g and Beyond               

Dropping Un-used Indexes        

Locating Infrequently Used Indexes       

The Problem of Too Many Indexes         

Determining Which Index to Delete       

Large Multi-column Indexes      

Row Clustering and SQL Performance    

Index Reorganization and SQL Performance       

When Rebuilding Indexes May Help SQL Performance  

When Rebuilding Indexes Will Hurt Performance             

Choosing Candidates for Index Maintenance     

Index Hints        

The Index Hint 

The index_join Hint       

The and_equal Hint       

The index_asc Hint         

The no_index Hint          

The index_desc Hint      

The index_combine Hint             

The index_ffs Hint          

  

 

CHAPTER 7: RAM and SQL Tuning     

RAM usage and SQL Tuning        

SQL processing and RAM             

Sizing the PGA  

SQL Tuning and Automatic Memory Management           

Manual RAM allocation vs. AMM             

Hidden parameters for Oracle PGA regions         

Sizing PGA for Fast SQL 

Important Caveats in PGA Management              

Sizing PGA for Hash Joins             

Viewing RAM Usage for Hash Joins in SQL            

A Case Study in Invoking Hash Joins        

The g Full Hash Join        

Using the hash group by Plan    

When Hash Joins Fail     

Monitoring RAM Operations for SQL      

Viewing RAM Usage for Individual Processes     

Viewing Individual RAM Work Areas      

Tracking Hash Joins        

   

CHAPTER 8:  Tuning Distributed SQL 

Distributed Database Technology            

Coordinating Distributed Databases       

Distributed SQL Table Joins         

The remote-to-remote Distributed Join               

The local-to-remote distributed join      

Troubleshooting Distributed Oracle SQL               

Performance Issues with Distributed Queries    

Creating Cross-database Execution Plans             

Determining the Driving Site and Driving Table for Cross-database Queries          

The Problem of Remote Joins   

Overview of Distributed SQL Tuning       

Sorting and Distributed SQL        

Parallelism and Distributed Queries        

Using Views for Distributed SQL               

Tuning with the driving_site Hint             

Forcing Partition Pruning on Distributed SQL       

Tuning distributed DDL 

     

CHAPTER 9: Tuning Parallel SQL Execution    

Parallel query speeds up full-table scans              

A Brief History of Parallel Query               

Parallel Sorting 

Parallel Query and I/O Buffering              

Tuning Parallel Join Operations 

Tuning Parallel Sort Merge Joins               

Tuning Parallel Hash Joins            

How Oracle Parallel Query Works            

Parallel Hints     

The Parallel Hint              

The pq_distribute Hint 

The noparallel Hint         

Invoking Parallel Query

Single Instance Oracle Parallel Query     

Oracle RAC and Inter-Instance Parallelism           

Finding the Optimal Degree of Parallelism           

Checking CPU Count      

Parallel Query for Distributed Instances

Oracle Parallel Query Parameters            

The fast_start_parallel_rollback Parameter        

The parallel_max_servers Parameter    

The log_buffer Parameter          

The db_block_lru_latches Parameter    

Oracle g R Parallel Parameters   

Parallel DML: update, merge and delete              

Monitoring Oracle Parallel Query             

Bottlenecks in Oracle Parallel Query       

Finding Disk Enqueues  

Finding CPU Slowdowns              

Parallel Query Execution Plans  

Conclusion         

CHAPTER 10: SQL Tuning with Views 

Inside Oracle Views       

Tuning SQL with Views 

Benefits of Oracle Views             

Drawbacks in Tuning SQL that Contains Views    

Abusing Views in Oracle SQL      

Merging Views and SQL Tuning 

Predicate Pushing with Views   

Combining Hints and Views        

Oracle In-line Views       

Tips for Tuning SQL with Views 

SQL Tuning with Materialized Views       

Materialized Views and Automatic SQL Query Rewrite  

A Case Study in Materialized Views        

Conclusions on Materialized Views for SQL Tuning           

     

CHAPTER 11:  Tuning SQL with Object Reorganization 

Reorganizing Tables for High Performance          

Faster SQL with Database Reorganizations          

Tuning SQL Access with clustering_factor             

Tuning SQL with Cluster Tables 

Multi-table Index Cluster Tables              

Single-table Index Cluster Tables             

Managing Row Chaining in Oracle            

A Summary of Object Tuning Rules         

Oracle Index Maintenance         

Not All Indexes Benefit from Rebuilding               

When Should Indexes Be Rebuilt?          

        

CHAPTER 12:  Tuning SQL Sort Operations         

The History of Data Sorting         

Sort at Query Time or Sort After Retrieval?         

Tuning with External Sorts          

Internals of Oracle Sorting          

Managing Oracle Sorting              

Avoiding Disk Sorts         

Super Sizing SQL Sort areas         

Monitoring Disk Sorts    

         

CHAPTER 13:  Tuning Object-oriented SQL       

Object Oriented Oracle SQL       

The SQL Impedance Mismatch  

SQL Object Extension Performance        

Performance of Oracle Object-oriented SQL      

Repeating Data Items in Relational Tables            

Inside Varray Tables      

Execution Plans for varray Tables             

Oracle Nested tables     

Nested Tables and SQL Performance     

ADTs and Oracle SQL     

Abstract Datatypes and SQL Performance           

        

CHAPTER 14: Tuning SQL Subqueries 

Subquery Tuning and SQL           

Types of SQL Subqueries             

Tuning Guidelines for Subqueries            

Avoiding SQL Subqueries             

Subqueries in the where Clause               

In vs. exists Subqueries

Same Results, Different Syntax and Plans            

Non-correlated subquery:          

Outer Join:         

Correlated Subquery:   

Tuning Scalar Subqueries             

Scalar Subquery Performance   

Removing Subqueries for Fast SQL Performance              

Using Global Temporary Tables to Improve SQL Speed  

Removing Subqueries Using the with Clause      

Internals of Temporary Tables  

Row Management of Temporary Tables               

Remove subqueries with global temporary tables           

Correlated vs. Noncorrelated Subqueries            

Tuning Correlated Subqueries   

Automatic Rewriting not exists Subqueries         

Automatic Rewriting exists Subqueries 

Rewriting Non-equality Correlated Subqueries 

Rewriting exists Subqueries with the rank Function        

Subquery Hint Tuning   

Subquery Tuning with Index Hints           

Tuning Subqueries With the push_subq Hint      

Table Anti-Join Hints      

The merge_aj Hint         

SQL Tuning With the hash_aj Hint            

       

CHAPTER 15:  Troubleshooting SQL      

Troubleshooting Problem SQL   

The Holistic Approach to SQL Tuning       

Troubleshooting Oracle SQL Bugs             

What is Bad SQL?            

Identifying Problem SQL              

Troubleshooting with v$sql_plan             

SQL Troubleshooting with v$sql_plan_statistics

Finding indexing opportunities 

        

CHAPTER 16:  SQL Tuning & the Library Cache

The Library Cache and Oracle SQL Performance

All About Parsing             

All About Cursors            

Reusing SQL Inside the Library Cache     

Place All SQL Inside Stored Procedures 

Use Host Variables         

Tuning the Library Cache             

Tuning shared_pool_size            

The Library Cache Hit Ratio         

Using open_cursors       

Using session_cached_cursors 

Using cursor_space_for_time   

Using cursor_sharing     

Oracle Cursor Sharing Enhancements    

Using g Adaptive Cursor Sharing               

Conclusion         

CHAPTER 17:  Time Series SQL Tuning

Proactive Time-Series SQL Tuning            

SQL Trending with STATSPACK and AWR              

The dba_hist_sqlstat Table         

The dba_hist_sql_plan Table     

Viewing Table and Index Access with AWR          

Tracking SQL nested loop joins  

Tracking Full-Scan SQL Over Time             

Counting Index Usage Inside SQL            

Tracking SQL Sort Activity            

Tracking SQL Library Cache Hard Parses 

     

CHAPTER 18:  Oracle DML Tuning         

 DML Tuning is not for neophytes            

Oracle DML tuning          

Optimizing Oracle SQL insert performance          

High Impact insert Tuning Techniques   

Tips for batch inserts     

Low-impact insert techniques (% and % faster) 

Tuning insert speed with the nologging option  

Reverse key indexes and insert performance    

Blocksize and insert performance            

Oracle Delete Tuning     

Oracle Update Tuning   

High impact update techniques (over % faster):           

Low-impact techniques (between % and % faster)          

Using bulk binds for PL/SQL updates      

Oracle subquery factoring (with clause) for DML              

       

CHAPTER 19:  Oracle SQL Tuning Advisors        

Towards Automated SQL Tuning              

Oracle’s Automatic SQL Tuning Approach             

The Goals of Holistic SQL Tuning               

Decision Support and Expert Systems Technology           

Inside the g SQL Performance Analyzer

Comparing the SPA Results        

Gathering the SQL Tuning set    

Oracle guided workflow screen             

Using the Oracle SQLTuning Advisor       

Using SQLTuning Advisor Session             

Oracle Automatic Database Diagnostics Monitor               

        

CHAPTER 21:  Oracle SQL Advanced Analytics 

Inside SQL Analytics       

Creating Custom SQL Extensions              

Extending SQL with PL/SQL Functions    

Mathematic Functions in SQL    

Binary Functions in SQL

Sign Functions  

Rounding and Truncating Functions        

SQL Modulo Functions  

SQL Functions to Search and Modify Strings        

Regular Expression Functions    

SQL Conversion Functions           

SQL NLS Functions          

National Character Set  

Logical Functions with True or False Values         

SQL Null Functions

 



INDEX
 

A

ABS       

all_rows                

analyze table    

ASCIISTR             

auto_sample_size          

AUTOTRACE      

avg_row_len    

B

BIN_TO_NUM  

BINARY_DOUBLE            

BINARY_FLOAT

BITAND               

buffer_pool_keep         

C

cardinality                

CASE     

CAST     

CC          

CEIL       

CHR       

clustering_factor             

COALESCE          

consistent gets

cpu_cost             

cursor_sharing    

 

D            

data buffer hit ratio       

DATE    

DAY       

db file sequential read  

db_block_size  

db_cache_size 

dba_all_tables 

dba_hist_sql_plan          

dba_hist_sqlplan            

dba_hist_sqlstat               

dba_histograms              

dba_ind_partitions        

dba_ind_subpartitions 

dba_indexes     

dba_object_tables         

dba_part_col_statistics

dba_segments 

dba_subpart_col_statistics         

dba_tab_col_statistics  

dba_tab_cols    

dba_tab_columns          

dba_tab_partitions        

dba_tab_subpartitions 

dba_tables        

dba_tables.avg_row_len            

dba_users          

dbms_job          

dbms_scheduler             

dbms_stat.gather_system_stats             

dbms_stats             

DD         

DECODE              

dynamic_sampling              

E

ENAME

estimate_percent          

executions_delta            

EXTRACT             

F

FF          

FLOOR 

FM        

FROM  

full outer join      

function-based indexes               

G

GREATEST          

greedy expression         

H

HASH JOIN FULL OUTER               

HEXTORAW       

HH         

HH         

HOUR   

I

index range scan             

init.ora   

INITCAP              

INSTR   

INSTR   

INSTR   

INSTRB

INSTRC

io_cost

IW         

 

J             

K

KEEP pool             

L

Laboratory Information Management Systems 

LEAST   

LENGTH               

LENGTH               

LENGTH               

LENGTHB            

LENGTHC            

LNNVL 

LOWER

LPAD    

LTRIM  

M

materialized views           

method_opt     

MI         

MINUTE              

MM      

modulo               

MONTH               

multiblock_read_count

 

N

NCHR   

NLS_DATE_TERRITORY 

NLS_INITCAP    

NLS_LOWER      

NLS_SORT          

NLS_TERRITORY               

NLS_UPPER       

no_cpu_costing               

non-greedy expression

NULL    

NULLIF 

num_rows         

NUMBER            

NUMTODSINTERVAL     

NUMTOYMINTERVAL          

NVL       

O

OCCURRENCE   

Optimizer Plan Stability

optimizer_dynamic_sampling   

optimizer_features_enable       

optimizer_index_caching            

optimizer_index_cost_adj            

optimizer_mode               

Oracle Calendar               

Oracle Locale Builder     

Oracle Parallel Query     

outer join           

P

partition key     

partitioned outer join   

pga_aggregate_target  

physical reads   

POSIX   

Q            

R

RAW     

RAWTOHEX       

RECYCLE pool    

REGEXP_COUNT             

REGEXP_INSTR

REGEXP_LIKE    

REGEXP_REPLACE           

REGEXP_SUBSTR             

REPLACE             

RM        

ROUND               

RPAD    

RR          

RTRIM  

S

sample_size      

scalar subquery               

SECOND              

session-independent views       

SIGN     

SORT UNIQUE  

SP          

SQL Profiles          

SQLAccess          

SQLTuning          

SSSSS   

STATSPACK        

SUBSTR               

SUBSTR               

SUBSTR               

SUBSTRB             

SUBSTRC             

sys.aux_stat$   

SYS_GUID          

T

TH          

TIMESTAMP      

TKPROF               

TO_BINARY_DOUBLE    

TO_BINARY_FLOAT        

TO_BLOB            

TO_CHAR               

TO_CLOB            

TO_DATE            

TO_DSINTERVAL             

TO_NCHAR        

TO_NCLOB         

TO_NUMBER      

TO_TIMESTAMP              

TO_TIMESTAMP_TZ      

TO_YMINTERVAL            

TRANSLATE        

TRIM    

TRUNC 

U

UNION ALL        

UNISTR

UPPER 

 

V            

v$bh     

v$db_cache_advice       

v$sql        

v$sql_plan             

Views

v_$sql_plan         

VSIZE    

W

   

Workload analysis           

     

X

x$bh     

 

Y             

YEAR     

YY          

 

   

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