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Library of Congress Number: 2005901264
240 pages:
Perfect bind - 9x7
PD 206
Shelving: Databases/Oracle Easy Oracle series
# 4

  Easy Oracle Jumpstart
Oracle Database Management Concepts and Administration

Steve Karam, Robert Freeman 

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This book introduces you to the Oracle Database in plain English with a focus on providing you with an in-depth knowledge of Oracle’s basic features and management techniques. By explaining how Oracle works, this book will provide you with the information and tools you need to manage and administer an Oracle database.

We include important Oracle tasks such as database creation, startup, shutdown and management and we also cover Oracle’s capability to protect the data stored in the database, as well as critical daily maintenance scripts.

This book is a valuable resource for both the new DBA and a manager wanting to understand the management and operation of an Oracle Database.


          Oracle 10g
Key Features

* Get detailed information on the inner working of the Oracle Database and how to effectively use Oracle’s caches.

* Learn how Oracle provides consistent views and transactional control using UNDO and REDO logs.

* See how Oracle protects your data with Archive Logs.

* Protect your data with Archive Logs.

* Learn to manage Users and database security.

* Gain knowledge of Oracle’s Storage Structures including Locally Managed Tablespaces and ASSM.

* Become skilled at Database Monitoring and Performance Tuning.

About the Authors:

Steve Karam


Steve Karam is one of the few DBAs worldwide to achieve both the Oracle 10g Certified Master certification and the Oracle ACE designation, both of which he received before the age of 26.  As both a production DBA and an instructor, he has a proven track record in performance and troubleshooting on dozens of high profile Oracle systems including complex RAC environments. 

Additionally, Steve has been developing against Oracle databases for over twelve years on a variety of platforms including C, C++, Java, PHP, and Application Express.
Steve is also involved heavily in the Oracle community as the President of the Hampton Roads Oracle Users Group, Web Chair for the IOUG RAC SIG, and judge for the yearly Oracle Academy educational competition.


Robert Freeman

Robert G. Freeman is an Oracle DBA

Table of Contents:

CHAPTER 1 – Inside the Oracle Architecture
This section describes the Oracle architecture in plain English and shows you how to

1-1: Instance Architecture
• Creating the OFA file structure ($DBA, bdump, udump, pfile)

1-2: SGA Architecture

1-3: Background processes

1-4: Control file management
• Explaining the use of control files
• Listing the Contents of the control File
• File locations for control Files
• Obtaining Control File Information
• Listing control file contents

1-5: UNDO and REDO logs
• Displaying and Creating Rollback Segments
• Altering Rollback Segments
• Determining the Number and Size of Rollback Segments
• Obtaining Rollback Segment Information from v$rollstat and dba_rollback_segs
• Troubleshooting Rollback Segment Problems – snapshot too old
• Redo log concepts for recovery
• Online redo log (log_buffer) online redo logs and archived redo logs
• Oracle ARCH and LGWR background processes
• Redo log dictionary queries
• Redo log switch frequency and performance
• Multiplexing the Online Redo Log Files
• Archiving the Oracle Redo Logs
• Recovery using the redo log files

1-6: Users and privileges
• Creating New Database Users
• User default tablespaces and TEMP
• Password aging
• Altering and Dropping Existing Database Users
• Monitoring Information bbout Existing Users
• Identifying System and Object Privileges
• Granting and Revoking Privileges
• Creating and Modifying Roles
• Controlling Availability of Roles
• Removing Roles
• Using Predefined Roles
• Displaying Role Information from the Data Dictionary

CHAPTER 2 – Managing an Oracle Instance
This section

2-1: Initialization file management
• Creating the init.ora file
• Displaying init.ora values with v$parameter

2-2: Listener configuration
• Creating the listener.ora file

2-3: TNS names configuration
• Creating the tnsnames.ora file

2-4: Data buffer configuration & sizing

2-5: Shared pool configuration & Sizing

2-6: Starting and stopping Oracle
• Shutdown and Startup an Instance
• Mounting and opening an instance

Chapter 3 – Oracle DBA tools
This is an introduction to Oracle administration tools and techniques.

3-1: Enterprise Manager (OEM)

3-2: Schema, File & tablespace management
• Describing the relationship between data files, tablespaces and table
• Understanding Oracle segments
• Creating Tablespaces – using the autoextend option
• Changing the Size of Tablespaces – alter database datafile command
• Defining a TEMP tablespace
• Changing the default storage Settings for a tablespace

3-3: Database Maintenance
• Reason for reorgs – chained rows, imbalanced freelists
• Reorganizing Tables using Export and Import
• Using CTAS to reorganize data
• Index rebuilding

3-4: Monitoring Oracle
• Enterprise manager performance pack
• Displaying and managing Oracle sessions with v$session
• Monitoring the log and searching for Oracle trace files

3-5: Utilities
• Imp and exp utilities
• SQL*Loader
3-6: Dictionary and v$ views
• The dba_, all_ and user_ structures
• Querying the tables, indexes, and segments views
• Getting view names from dict view

CHAPTER 4 – Managing Oracle objects
This section explores the methods used for managing all active components of the Oracle database including

4-1: File and tablespace structures
• Review of the storage parameters pctfree, pctused and freelists.
• Chained rows and pctfree
• Insert performance and pctused values
• Using the APPEND option with inserts

4-2: Table structures
• Creating Tables Using Appropriate Storage Settings
• Controlling table extents and fragmentation
• Analyzing Tables for CBO statistics
• Using the dba_tables and dba_segments views
• Converting Between Different Formats of ROWID

4-3: Index structures
• Listing the Different Types of Indexes and Their Uses
• Creating B*-Tree, bitmap and function-based Indexes
• Reorganizing Indexes with alter index rebuild
• Dropping Indexes
• Getting Index Information from the Data Dictionary

4-4: Object-oriented Oracle
• Identification of objects - real-world modeling
• Object representation
• Data storage for composite objects
• Differences between existing data storage methods
• Benefits of object-oriented systems
• Comparisons of methodologies
• Retrofitting existing systems into object technology
• Improving on traditional systems design methods
• Internalizing object technology concepts

4-5: Oracle Object Structures
• Object-oriented Oracle SQL
• Nested Tables
• VARRAYS within tables
• Using object ID’s
• Using abstract data types

4-6: STATSPACK performance management
• Installing STATSPACK
• Running STATSPACK reports
• Interpreting a STATSPACK report
• Getting time series reports with STATSPACK
• Finding performance signatures with STATSPACK

CHAPTER 5 – Performance Management
This section explores the methods used for performance management in Oracle and shows tips and scripts for monitoring all components of any Oracle database. You will also learn the proper action to take when any area of Oracle becomes a bottleneck.

5-1: Bottleneck performance analysis
• Top-5 timed events
• External Server Bottlenecks (Network, I/O, RAM, CPU)

5-2: Tuning at the Instance Level
• Changing init.ora parameters (index_optimizer_cost_adj, optimizer_mode)
• Buffer busy waits

5-4: CBO behavior
• Introduction to rule-based optimization
• Introduction to cost-based optimization
• Changing the default optimizer modes
• Collecting table and index statistics (dbms_stats)
• Using column histograms
• Skewonly

5-5: SQL Tuning
• Review of Basic joining methods
• Merge join
• Hash Join
• Nested Loop join
• Advanced SQL operators
• Between operator
• Using hints to improve SQL performance
• Using parallel query to improve performance
• SQL reusability within the library cache
• Table high-water mark
• Table striping and table partitions
• Using indexes to improve performance
• Identifying full-table scans
• Re-writing SQL queries
• Tuning sub-queries

5-6: Explain plan
• Interpreting EXPLAIN PLAN Output
• Using TKPROF
• Using SQL*Trace


page 30 top line "However, and instance..." should be 'an instance'.
page 32 Since 'segments' is used in the Extents section, i figured that Segments should come before Extents... could be wrong.
page 39 under 'oracle connection manager (CMAN).  'Thos' should be 'This'
page 82 second paragraph 'Technical Support also knows as ' should be 'known as'
page 87 second to last line ' from loosing...' should be ' from losing...'
page 90 near top of page 'drio logfile member' should probably be 'drop logfile member'.
page 101 first word 'Exerts' should be 'Experts'
page 123 2/3 down the page not sure if this is wrong or not: 'reoccurring' ought to be recurring?
page 170 4th line 'for example, is a' should be 'for example, if a'
page 176 under starting RMAN 'se before' should be 'set before'.
page 177 Top of page 'Before RMAN can be used a few setting...'   2 things: first setting should be setting, and the whole line is repeated almost verbatim in the 'Configure the database and rman for backup' section. So it should probably be removed at the top of the page.
page 178 First line 'database if' should be 'database is'
page 180 1/2 way down the page  'There is not need' should be 'There is no need'

1. Under the heading Granting Object Level Privileges

"For example, we can grant the user TOM access to the EMP table in the SCOTT account (or schema) with this command:
GRANT SELECT ON emp TO scott;" 

should be

"For example, we can grant the user TOM access to the EMP table in the SCOTT account (or schema) with this command:

2. Under the heading Perform an Online (HOT) Backup of the Database with RMAN on page 180

RMAN>backup database plus archivelogs delete input;

should be

RMAN>backup database plus archivelog delete input;


RMAN>backup archivelogs all delete input;

should be

RMAN>backup archivelog all delete input;


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