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Oracle Tips by Burleson

Chapter 11 Oracle Fine Grained Auditing

selects the claim. From the audit trails, we saw that the user issued:

select claim_amount from claims where claim_id = 1234567;

The status value for the claim 1234567 was INACTIVE at that time, which is the reason the FGA handler audited the statement.

Later, the status for this claim was changed to PENDING. At the time the audit record was seen, the status was INACTIVE, not PENDING. So when the auditor issues the same query to see what the user saw:

select status from claims where claim_id = 1234567;

He or she will see PENDING, not INACTIVE. Although the user saw the claim when it was inactive, the auditor will never ascertain that. This may lead to accountability problems later. Almost always, the audit trails are examined as an after-effect, and the data could have changed since the time the trails were generated. We need to devise a mechanism to let the auditor know what the user saw at that time, not what the value is now.

Fortunately, a feature known as Flashback Queries allows this to be accomplished quite easily. Introduced in Oracle 9i, this tool lets the data be rewound, i.e. the data is shown as a snapshot in some point in the past. Discussing the details of the Flashback Queries is beyond the scope of this book. In this section we will
 

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