Oracle Consulting Oracle Training Oracle Support Development
Oracle Books
SQL Server Books
IT Books
Job Interview Books
Rampant Horse Books
911 Series
Pedagogue Books

Oracle Software
Write for Rampant
Publish with Rampant
Rampant News
Rampant Authors
Rampant Staff
Oracle News
Oracle Forum
Oracle Tips
Articles by our Authors
Press Releases
SQL Server Books

Oracle 11g Books

Oracle tuning

Oracle training

Oracle support

Remote Oracle


Privacy Policy



Oracle Tips by Burleson

Chapter 8 General Oracle Auditing

functionality can be extended not just to an application user management, but to auditing as well.

Other Types of Audit

You might have noticed the central theme of the auditing actions mentioned in the previous sections is auditing access to the object. However, creating a trail of activity is not just about accessing the specific objects; but other things as well – such as data. The Oracle tool AUDIT can't capture changes to the data inside objects like tables.

Similarly, if the source code of a procedural object like a function or procedure is changed, the audit command captures the fact that it was changed, but not what was changed. Typically, the changes to data find their way into the redo logs and then to the archived logs, which can be mined later to identify the changes. The changes can also be captured at the source through triggers. All these options that are beyond the capabilities of the regular audit command have been discussed in subsequent chapters in this book.

Another part of the problem in auditing is when the user only selects, not changes, the data. This does not cause any triggers to fire and this information does not go into the redo log files, and therefore can't be mined later. Unfortunately, prior to Oracle 9i, it was not possible to capture the user's select statements. In some cases, this may not seem important, but in a scenario where you are dealing with data containing PHI, auditing is mandated by HIPAA. Oracle 9i introduced a new feature called Fine Grained Auditing (FGA) that allows not merely recording of select statements, but even records selectively based on user defined filtering criteria. In

The above text is an excerpt from the bestselling book: Oracle Privacy Security Auditing It's only $39.95 and has an download of working security scripts:


This is the only authoritative book on Oracle Security, Oracle Privacy, and Oracle Auditing written by two of the world’s leading Oracle Security experts.

This indispensable book is only $39.95 and has an download of working security scripts:


Download your Oracle scripts now:

The definitive Oracle Script collection for every Oracle professional DBA


Linux Oracle commands syntax poster

ION Oracle tuning software

Oracle data dictionary reference poster

Oracle Forum

BC Oracle consulting support training

BC remote Oracle DBA   



 Copyright © 1996 -2017 by Burleson. All rights reserved.

Oracle® is the registered trademark of Oracle Corporation. SQL Server® is the registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 
Many of the designations used by computer vendors to distinguish their products are claimed as Trademarks